AIDS Home > Oral, Urine, and Rapid HIV Tests
Urine and oral tests for HIV offer alternatives for anyone reluctant to have their blood drawn.
A urine HIV test is not as sensitive or specific as blood testing. Available urine tests include an EIA and a Western blot test that can confirm EIA results. A physician must order these tests, and the results are reported to the ordering physician or his or her assistant.
Orasure© and OraQuick® Advance HIV-1/2 are currently the only oral-fluid tests approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Fluid is collected from inside the mouth and analyzed using an EIA test and supplemental Western blot test, if necessary. Oral fluid tests are offered at many HIV testing locations. Contact a location near you to find out if this test is available.
A rapid test usually produces results in up to 20 minutes. In comparison, results from the commonly used HIV-antibody screening test, the EIA, are not available for one to two weeks. There are currently four rapid HIV tests licensed for use in the United States:
- OraQuick® Rapid HIV-1 and Advance HIV-1/2 Antibody Tests, manufactured by OraSure Technologies, Inc.
- Reveal™ G2 HIV-Antibody Tests, manufactured by MedMira, Inc.
- Multispot®, manufactured by Bio-Rad Laboratories
- Uni-Gold™ Recombigen®, manufactured by Trinity Biotech.
The availability of these tests may differ from one place to another. These rapid tests are considered just as accurate as the EIA. As is true for all screening tests (including the EIA), a positive test result must be confirmed with an additional specific test before a diagnosis of HIV infection can be given.